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  1. #170
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    Jan 2018

    The Value of the Moon
    Go to 3:00

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuhK9a8ipOQ

    Wernher von Braun explains the possibility to reach the Moon. "Man and the Moon", Dec. 28, 1955
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXIDFx74aSY

    Hakuto moon rover gets $90 million funding
    https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2018/0...n-funding.html

    Google Lunar XPRIZE competitor Team HAKUTO raises $90.2 million, most ever for an XPRIZE team
    https://www.xprize.org/prizes/google...ises-usd-90-2m


    Perils in space funding: India's first private Moon mission aborted
    .
    The aborted plan of Team Indus to land a spacecraft and rover on the moon by March after it failed to mobilise funds to hire a rocket from Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) shows that investors are still wary of funding space start-ups in the country.

    While Team Indus had backing from Infosys co-founder Nandan Nilekani, Tata Group doyen Ratan Tata and Flipkart founders Sachin and Binny Bansal, the Bengaluru-start-up could not even muster half of the Rs 4.5 billion it required for the mission to the moon.

    https://www.business-standard.com/ar...0900337_1.html


    Team Indus exits the Google Lunar X-Prize competition
    .
    India’s competitor for the the Google Lunar X-Prize, Team Indus, has exited the competition because it could not raise the funds needed to buy a launch on an Indian PSLV rocket.

    It is unclear how this will effect Japan’s team, Hakuto, which was going to fly on the same rocket, mounted to the Team Indus lander. I suspect that their effort is over as well.

    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...e-competition/


    Is the Google Lunar X Prize Kaput?
    .
    It appears highly likely that the decade-old Google Lunar X Prize will end on March 31 without a winner following reports out of India that Team Indus has pulled out of the race.

    http://www.parabolicarc.com/2018/01/...r-prize-kaput/


    Is the Google Lunar X-Prize dead?
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...-x-prize-dead/


    Possible Lava Tube Skylights Discovered Near the North Pole of the Moon
    .
    11 January 2018, Mountain View, CA –The SETI Institute and the Mars Institute announced today the discovery of small pits in a large crater near the North Pole of the Moon, which may be entrances to an underground network of lava tubes. The pits were identified through analysis of imaging data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). If water ice is present, these potential lava tube entrances or “skylights” might allow future explorers easier access to subsurface ice, and therefore water, than if they had to excavate the gritty ice-rich “regolith” (surface rubble) at the actual lunar poles.

    https://www.seti.org/possible-lava-t...orth-pole-moon


    SETI Institute finds lunar lava tubes that could provide easy access to water ice
    https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2018/0...water-ice.html


    Space Escape: Flying A Chair To Lunar Orbit
    .
    In the early days of the Apollo program, there were plans to launch two Saturn V rockets for every moon landing, one topped with a command module and three astronauts, the other one containing an unmanned ‘LM Truck’. This second vehicle would land on the moon with all the supplies and shelter for a 14-day mission. There would be a pressurized lunar rover weighing thousands of pounds. This wouldn’t exactly be a Lunar colony, instead, it would be more like a small cabin in the Arctic used as a scientific outpost. Astronauts and scientists would land, spend two weeks researching and exploring, and return to Earth with hundreds of pounds of samples.

    With this, as with all Apollo landings, came a risk. What would happen if the ascent engine didn’t light? Apart from a beautiful speech written by William Safire, there was nothing concrete for astronauts consigned to the deepest of the deep. Later in the Apollo program, there was a plan for real hardware to bring stranded astronauts home. This was the Lunar Escape System (LESS), basically two chairs mounted to a rocket engine.

    While the LESS was never built, several studies were completed in late 1970 by North American Rockwell detailing the hardware that would return two astronauts from the surface of the moon. It involved siphoning fuel from a stricken Lunar Module, flying to orbit with no computer or really any instrumentation at all, and performing a rendezvous with an orbiting Command Module in less than one Lunar orbit.


    https://hackaday.com/2018/01/19/spac...o-lunar-orbit/
    Vacuum Technology:
    CRUD = Contamination Resulting in Undesirable Deposits.
    CRAPP = Contamination Resulting in Additional Partial Pressure.

    Change your vacuum pump oil now.

    Test. Testing, 1,2,3.

  2. #171
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    T minus is this really going to happen?

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?time_con...3G5klp5JXWhNiA
    Eric

  3. #172
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    Thread Starter
    Feb-May 2018

    Trump budget aims to kick-start lunar exploration, cancels space telescope
    .

    Artist’s concept of NASA’s proposed deep space station near the moon. Credit: NASA
    https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstac...picture1_3.jpg

    The White House’s $19.9 billion NASA budget outline released Monday would continue development of NASA’s heavy-lift Space Launch System rocket and Orion crew capsule and begin the deployment of a mini-space station around the moon as soon as 2022, but the proposal would cancel WFIRST, a flagship-class astronomy mission planned for launch in the mid-2020s.

    The funding request submitted to Congress on Monday calls for $10.5 billion in fiscal year 2019, which begins Oct. 1, to prepare for human exploration of the moon as a stepping stone toward eventual missions to Mars and deeper into the solar system.

    https://spaceflightnow.com/2018/02/1...ace-telescope/


    Moon Village Assn
    #MoonVillage
    https://twitter.com/hashtag/MoonVill...rc=twsrc%5Etfw

    Moon Village Association
    https://moonvillageassociation.org/

    Have We Lost the Moon?
    .
    There was real excitement in the lunar community last fall when Vice President Mike Pence announced, during a meeting of the reconstituted National Space Council, that the next step in human spaceflight would be our return to the Moon. Advocates for this direction felt enormous relief; at last, reason had returned to the strategic planning of NASA’s human program – a program stalled for the last decade, merely marking time. True enough, the new Orion spacecraft is being built and the new SLS launch system development continues; but with only one boilerplate flight of same (and that launched on an existing Delta-IV Heavy, not the SLS), many felt certain the Orion program was trapped in development hell.

    The space policy directive put forth by the new Administration, one of returning to the Moon’s surface, was long overdue. It appeared that despite programmatic delays, a return to the Moon was back in the cards. But six months later, that direction, along with all of our earlier optimism, is now in question.

    http://www.spudislunarresources.com/...lost-the-moon/


    NASA Kills Lunar-Resources Mission Despite Push to Return to the Moon
    .
    NASA has canceled a mission to assay the resources that may be available to humans on the moon, even though President Donald Trump's administration made it a priority to send humans back there, according to media reports.

    The Resource Prospector mission would have sent a rover to the moon's polar regions to learn about water and other deposits on and just beneath the lunar surface. Scientists have sent an open letter to new NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, urging him not to shut down the agency's only current moon mission, which has already been in development for four years, according to a report by The Verge.

    The Resource Prospector mission consisted of a lander and a solar-powered rover equipped with a drill. The rover would have scouted the lunar surface, digging up soil for analysis. Scientists know that water ice exists on the moon, but the Resource Prospector would have provided scientists with a more complete understanding of these deposits.

    https://www.space.com/40431-nasa-can...rospector.html


    NASA clarifies the Lunar Resource Prospector situation
    .
    The day before, the space exploration community was roiled by the news that the Lunar Resource Prospector, a long developed mission to send a rover to one of the moon’s poles, had been canceled. The decision seemed to be somewhat at odds with President Donald Trump’s mandate for NASA to return astronauts to the lunar surface. However, the space agency’s administrator Jim Bridenstine took to Twitter to try to clarify what was really going on in context of the overall plans for lunar exploration.

    https://us.blastingnews.com/news/201...002535227.html


    Trump administration cancels lunar rover mission
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...rover-mission/


    NASA cancels lunar rover, shifts focus to commercial moon landers
    https://spaceflightnow.com/2018/05/0...-moon-landers/


    Arch Mission Foundation Partners with Astrobotic to Launch Historic Lunar Library
    .
    PITTSBURGH, Pa. (Astrobotic PR) — The Arch Mission Foundation and Astrobotic today announced a partnership to land the Lunar Library™ on Astrobotic’s first mission to the Moon in 2020. The Lunar Library will last for up to billions of years on the Moon, continuing the Arch Foundation’s mission to preserve and disseminate humanity’s most important knowledge across time and space.

    The foundational components of the Lunar Library will include the Wikipedia, and the Long Now Foundation’s Rosetta Project, a digital library of human languages. Additional content and data for the Lunar Library, will be announced in the coming year.

    http://parabolicarc.com/2018/05/16/a...lunar-library/


    Off topic: This article is in reference to post #37 on page 3.
    (https://hvac-talk.com/vbb/showthread...1#post20752541 )

    Virus fished from pond cures man’s deadly antibiotic-resistant infection
    .
    In 2012, a 76-year-old Connecticut doctor had surgery to repair a life-threatening bulge in his aortic arch—the hulking bend that hooks the massive artery around the heart, routing oxygenated blood both upward and downward. Surgeons successfully used a synthetic graft to shore up the vital conduit. But soon after, a tenacious film of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria formed on the graft.

    The doctor spent the next four years battling the infection, slipping in and out of the hospital. His surgeons and doctors at Yale deemed him too high risk for another operation and put him on mega-doses of antibiotics, prescribed indefinitely. The drugs couldn’t clear the infection, they merely knocked it back enough to keep it from killing him. But the chronic inflammation that ensued took its own toll. His team of doctors started to worry his immune system was chipping away at his aorta. With a bleak outlook, the man agreed in 2016 to an experimental treatment: a virus that researchers had fished out of a nearby pond.

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2018...ved-mans-life/
    Vacuum Technology:
    CRUD = Contamination Resulting in Undesirable Deposits.
    CRAPP = Contamination Resulting in Additional Partial Pressure.

    Change your vacuum pump oil now.

    Test. Testing, 1,2,3.

  4. #173
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    Thread Starter
    Next China lunar lander aimed for farside south pole
    June 14, 2016
    .
    The competition heats up: China announced plans today to send its next lunar lander, Chang’e 4, to the Moon’s farside south pole in 2018.
    .
    The lander of Chang’e-4 will be equipped with descent and terrain cameras, and the rover will be equipped with a panoramic camera, he said. Like China’s first lunar rover Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, carried by Chang’e-3, the rover of Chang’e-4 will carry subsurface penetrating radar to detect the near surface structure of the moon, and an infrared spectrometer to analyze the chemical composition of lunar samples.

    But unlike Chang’e-3, the new lander will be equipped with an important scientific payload especially designed for the far side of the moon: a low-frequency radio spectrometer. “Since the far side of the moon is shielded from electromagnetic interference from the Earth, it’s an ideal place to research the space environment and solar bursts, and the probe can ‘listen’ to the deeper reaches of the cosmos,” Liu said.

    The U.S. had been in the lead in the land rush to gain dominance in the possibly water-rich lunar south pole. We apparently have lost this lead with decision of President Obama and Congress to focus elsewhere, either the asteroids or Mars.

    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...de-south-pole/


    China developing mission to return samples from far side of the moon
    September 29, 2016
    .
    If China’s lunar exploration program goes according to plan, scientists could send a robotic lander to pick up samples from the far side of the moon and return them to Earth by the early 2020s, a top Chinese space official said.

    China is developing a pair of identical sample return craft to fly to the moon to bring back the first lunar samples since 1976.

    https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/09/2...e-of-the-moon/


    China Launches Chang’e-4 Relay Satellite for Lunar Far Side Mission
    May 21, 2018
    .
    China successfully launched the Chang’e-4 relay satellite to the Earth-moon L2 Lagrange point on Sunday. The spacecraft, which is named Queqiao, was lofted into space aboard a Long March 4C booster from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

    The satellite will relay data for the Chang’e-4 lunar rover and lander, which is set for launch late this year from Xichang. The rover will explore the South Pole-Aitken Basin as part of the first mission to explore the far side of the moon. The flight will also feature a lunar orbiter.

    Sunday’s launch included two microsats that will conduct astronomical observations from deep space.

    http://parabolicarc.com/2018/05/21/c...-side-mission/


    Queqiao relay satellite launched ahead of Chang’e-4 lunar mission
    .
    A Chinese Long March 4C has launched the Queqiao spacecraft – a relay satellite for the upcoming Chang’e-4 lunar mission. Launch occurred from the LC-3 pad at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre (XSLC) at 21:25 UTC.

    This latest launch is part of China’s growing ambitions for lunar exploration, which has already achieved numerous successes. Chang’e-1 was launched in 2007 and and Chang’e-2 in 2010.

    https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018...lunar-mission/

    China launches communications relay satellite for upcoming lunar mission
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...lunar-mission/


    The Queqiao Chang'e-4 lunar relay satellite could return more cool images like this
    .
    China's Queqiao Chang'e-4 relay satellite, launched on Sunday and currently heading to the Moon, is carrying cameras that could return more iconic images of the Earth and Moon.

    The Queqiao satellite is being sent to orbit around a gravitationally stable location beyond the Moon in order to facilitate an unprecedented mission later this year to put a lander and rover on the lunar far side.

    https://gbtimes.com/the-queqiao-chan...-space-program


    China launches two test cubesats to the Moon
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...s-to-the-moon/


    Bright side of the moon: China launches pioneering mission to explore valuable source of solar energy
    .
    A satellite left Earth this week on a mission to open the dark side of the moon to Chinese exploration. The relay satellite can be used to communicate with the far reaches of the moon, allowing controllers on Earth to maintain contact with an expected lunar probe later this year to unexplored territory.

    https://www.theglobeandmail.com/worl...on-to-explore/

    China, the Moon, and the Outer Space Treaty
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...-space-treaty/


    Queqiao Chang'e-4 satellite performs Moon flyby, makes successful braking manoeuvre
    .
    The Queqiao Chang'e-4 relay satellite has passed the Moon and successfully performed a propulsive manoeuvre to slow itself and send it towards its intended destination beyond the Moon.

    https://gbtimes.com/queqiao-change-4...-space-program


    NASA: Commercial Partners Key to Sustainable Moon Presence
    .
    WASHINGTON, DC (NASA PR) — As NASA shifts human exploration back to the Moon, U.S. commercial partnerships will be a key to expediting missions and building a sustainable presence on the lunar surface. The agency is orchestrating a robotic lunar campaign with a focus on growing commercial base of partnerships and activity that can support U.S. science, technology, and exploration objectives.

    NASA is planning a series of robotic commercial delivery missions as early as 2019 ahead of a human return to the Moon. These missions will deliver NASA instruments and technology to the surface of the Moon to conduct science and prepare for human exploration. Among the instruments to be flown are the instrumentation suite from the former Resource Prospector mission concept.

    http://parabolicarc.com/2018/05/25/n...moon-presence/
    Vacuum Technology:
    CRUD = Contamination Resulting in Undesirable Deposits.
    CRAPP = Contamination Resulting in Additional Partial Pressure.

    Change your vacuum pump oil now.

    Test. Testing, 1,2,3.

  5. #174
    Join Date
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    Thread Starter
    Quote Originally Posted by Moonrunner View Post
    I still think that we need to focus on non-rocket propulsion to get both materials and people off-planet. Even if Musk's wildest dreams come true, rocket launches will still be prohibitively expensive in the long term. More than any other space dream, we should be focusing on getting into orbit on a dime.
    (Page 4, Post 49)


    Illinois Tech Robotics: Mach 2 Centripetal Pumpkin Launcher

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_cezSJ9iqI


    Space Startup Wants to Catapult Payloads Into Space
    .
    If we every want to build monster machines in space, cheaper and more sustainable ways to get raw materials into orbit is of ever increasing importance. SpaceX recently made history with with heavy boosters returning after the initial launch of the Falcon Heavy, but a new challenger has a potentially cheaper alternative: catapult.

    https://www.popularmechanics.com/spa...ds-into-space/


    Stealth space catapult startup SpinLaunch is raising $30M
    .
    What if instead of blasting cargo into space on a rocket, we could fling it into space using a catapult? That’s the big, possibly crazy, possibly genius idea behind SpinLaunch. It was secretly founded in 2014 by Jonathan Yaney, who worked on his brother’s solar-powered drone startup Titan Aerospace that sold to Google. Now TechCrunch has learned from three sources that SpinLaunch is raising a massive $30 million Series A to develop its catapult technology. And we’ve scored an interview with the founder after four years in stealth.

    https://techcrunch.com/2018/02/22/spinlaunch-2/


    Spinlaunch is using large centrifuges to accelerate to payloads into space – target $500,000 per launch
    .
    SpinLaunch is raising $30 million to use large centrifuges to power catapult to launch payloads into space. They use large centrifuges to store energy and will then rapidly transfer that momentum into a catapult to send a payload to space at up to 4,800 kilometers per hour (3,000 mph). If successful, the acceleration architecture is projected to be both lower cost and use much less power, with the price of a single space launch reduced to under US$500,000.

    https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2018/0...er-launch.html


    Spinlaunch: Who Needs Rockets When You can Use Space Catapults?
    .
    Imagine a future where instead of sending payloads of cargo into space on rockets we used catapults instead? This might sound a little silly, even taking a step backward technologically but that's exactly what Spinlaunch intends to do. Founded in 2014, Spinlaunch has recently raised $30 million in Series A funding from investors, according to TechCrunch.

    The idea behind the Spinlaunch's catapults is to dispense with the costly use of chemical propellant rockets, and if successful this should make getting cargo into space a lot cheaper and more sustainable in the future. Once all the kinks are worked out, it could be used to launch satellites into space at a fraction of the cost of expensive booster rockets from companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin.

    https://interestingengineering.com/s...pace-catapults


    SPINLAUNCH the newest space company that will launch without rockets (2018)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JP3XDySsewc


    Secretive Startup SpinLaunch Breaks Ground on Satellite-Flinging Test Flight Facility
    The company is building a $7 million facility at Spaceport America in New Mexico.
    https://www.space.com/spinlaunch-bre...-facility.html


    SpinLaunch Secures First Contract for Revolutionary New Space Launch Services
    .
    LONG BEACH, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jonathan Yaney, founder and CEO of SpinLaunch, has announced that the company has been awarded a responsive launch prototype contract from the Department of Defense (DOD), facilitated by the Defense Innovation Unit (DIU).

    SpinLaunch is developing a kinetic energy-based launch system that will provide the world’s lowest-cost orbital launch services for the rapidly growing small satellite industry. In 2018, the company received $40 million in a Series A financing round from Airbus Ventures, Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins.

    https://www.businesswire.com/news/ho...w-Space-Launch


    SpinLaunch Wikipedia
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpinLaunch

    SpinLaunch Twitter
    https://twitter.com/SpinLaunch

    SpinLaunch Website
    https://www.spinlaunch.com/
    Last edited by Space Racer; 07-12-2019 at 03:42 PM.
    Vacuum Technology:
    CRUD = Contamination Resulting in Undesirable Deposits.
    CRAPP = Contamination Resulting in Additional Partial Pressure.

    Change your vacuum pump oil now.

    Test. Testing, 1,2,3.

  6. #175
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    Thread Starter
    May-June 2018

    Chang'e-4: Lunar microsatellite may be lost, Queqiao continues toward Lagrange point beyond Moon
    .
    Contact has been lost with one of two microsatellites launched along with the Queqiao Chang'e-4 lunar relay satellite following a standard trajectory correction manoeuvre on the way to the Moon.

    https://gbtimes.com/change-4-lunar-m...-space-program

    China loses contact with one of two lunar cubesats
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...unar-cubesats/


    Chinese data relay satellite nears post over far side of the moon
    .
    A Chinese communications satellite carrying a Dutch radio astronomy instrument launched last month is expected to maneuver into position around a gravitationally-stable point beyond the moon in the coming days, ready to relay telemetry and data between Earth and the Chang’e 4 lander set to attempt the first landing on lunar far side late this year.

    https://spaceflightnow.com/2018/06/0...e-of-the-moon/


    NASA’s new administrator says he’s talking to companies about taking over operations of the International Space Station
    .
    NASA is talking to several international companies about forming a consortium that would take over operation of the International Space Station and run it as a commercial space lab, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in an interview.

    “We’re in a position now where there are people out there that can do commercial management of the International Space Station,” Bridenstine said in his first extensive interview since being sworn in as NASA administrator in April. “I’ve talked to many large corporations that are interested in getting involved in that through a consortium, if you will.”
    ...
    In the wide-ranging interview, Bridenstine also listed a return to the moon and the restoration of human spaceflight from United States soil as two of his top priorities. NASA has proposed building an outpost in the vicinity of the moon that could be inhabited by humans from time to time, with landers that could ferry supplies to the lunar surface.

    Known as the Lunar Orbiting Platform Gateway, the system would be built by NASA in partnership with industry and its international partners, he said.

    “I've met with a lot of leaders of space agencies from around the world,” he said. “There is a lot of interest in the Gateway in the lunar outpost because a lot of countries want to have access to the surface of the moon. And this can help them as well and they can help us. It helps expand the partnership that we've seen in low Earth orbit with the International Space Station.”

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...space-station/

    NASA administrator in talks about commercializing ISS
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...cializing-iss/


    Bridenstine weighs in on national space policy
    .
    WASHINGTON — NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine used a recent speech to lay out not just the recent space policy changes that directly affect NASA activities but other administration efforts that focus more on commercial space.

    The comments by Bridenstine at a June 12 Space Transportation Association luncheon here reflect both the growing importance of commercial space to the agency’s overall activities but also his interest in interest in broader space policy issues from his time as a member of Congress.

    “I think a lot of people might believe that it’s this massive transformational change,” he said of the two space policy directives signed by President Trump to date. “In some ways it is, and in other ways it’s not.”

    The directive most relevant to NASA is Space Policy Directive (SPD) 1, signed by the president in December, which formally directs NASA to return humans to the moon as a step towards eventual missions to Mars. That has led NASA to develop an “Exploration Campaign” that includes steps from the development of the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway to plans to fly payloads on commercial lunar landers.

    That directive, he said, was in fact just a small amendment to the national space policy signed by President Obama in 2010 and which remains in force today. The key element of that change, he said, is an emphasis on a “sustainable” human return to the moon.

    “Our objective is to make sure that, over the long term, we’re going to have a human presence at the moon,” he said. “We want a sustainable, long-term presence at the moon.”

    https://spacenews.com/bridenstine-we...-space-policy/


    Chang’e-4 relay satellite enters halo orbit around Earth-Moon L2, microsatellite in lunar orbit
    .
    HELSINKI, Finland — The relay satellite which will facilitate China’s Chang’e-4 lunar far side landing mission late in 2018 has entered its intended halo orbit around Earth-Moon Lagrange point 2.

    The Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center (BACC) sent commands for the spacecraft to fire its engines at 11:00 p.m. EDT June 13, with the burn complete at 11:06 p.m.

    The satellite will now undergo on-orbit testing of its communications functions, while maintaining a complex Lissajous orbit, which is a three-dimensional irregular curve, rather than a two-dimensional halo.

    The relay satellite was launched from Xichang, southwest China, on May 20, and performed a braking maneuver May 25 when passing within 100 kilometers of the lunar surface, sending it on a trajectory towards the second Earth-Moon Lagrange point, some 65,000-80,000 kilometers beyond the moon.

    The relay satellite is a precursor mission to the launch of the Chang’e-4 lander and rover, which will attempt to land in the vicinity of the Von Kármán crater within the South Pole-Aitken Basin on the lunar far side around November or December. No such mission has been attempted before.

    As the lunar far side at no time faces the Earth, due to the moon’s orbital period matching its rotational period, a relay satellite is required to facilitate communications with the Earth.

    https://spacenews.com/change-4-relay...n-lunar-orbit/


    Relay satellite for Chang'e-4 lunar probe enters planned orbit
    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137253664.htm


    China, Saudi Arabia unveil lunar images gained from space cooperation
    .
    BEIJING, June 14 (Xinhua) -- China and Saudi Arabia on Thursday jointly unveiled three lunar images acquired through cooperation on the relay satellite mission for Chang'e-4 lunar probe.

    This is an important cooperation achievement between China and Saudi Arabia in the relay satellite mission, the China National Space Administration said in a statement.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137253874.htm

    Chinese cubesat using Saudi Arabian camera sends back first pictures
    https://behindtheblack.com/behind-th...irst-pictures/
    Vacuum Technology:
    CRUD = Contamination Resulting in Undesirable Deposits.
    CRAPP = Contamination Resulting in Additional Partial Pressure.

    Change your vacuum pump oil now.

    Test. Testing, 1,2,3.

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