Wow, live commentary, It is common knowledge that the existing filter dryer must be replaced after compressor failure, and if my guys made this mistake it would be a promt response. When dryer is inside unit they are alot of times replaced by tubing and the new one installed on liquid line close to out door unit or close to air handler/furnance for ease of future replacement. In your case it is more ironic because the restricted filter dryer was the primary problem. Did comp failure cause dryer restiction or vise versa, chicken or egg what ever. That is mute at this point but what is a fact is that they dropped the ball on not removing old dryer. What brand unit is this? inside unit a foot off ground and vertical make me think goodman, but I am more familiar with heat pump configuration. Your question is did the time the unit was running before they realized the mistake, will it affect lifespan of new compressor. I think and hope that old dryer was so clogged it didnt expose to much new refer to contamination, and that the dryer they did put in caught what came out of old one. In invoice they said they were going to add a suction line filter dryer also, which would help even more, but they have to come back in future to remove that one as it is temporary. They are done/gone now, but I would at least have them do an acid test on the refrigerant on their time, and you witness the test. If it is good have them do another when suction dryer is removed. There are even some acid tests you can do yourself. As far as him sleeping in van, I have taken naps during evacuations (pull downs), but do have micron gauge. But wouldnt do it when I was there with an upset home owner upset over my company's mistake. I hope for best.