Atheist Epicurus, circa 300BC, explained the following:
- The Atom
- The Molecule
- Law of Inertia
- Principle of Universal Natural Law
- Rain Cycle
- Sound as a Pressure Wave in Air
- Light Composed of Particles
- Sense of Smell Caused by Shape of Molecule Fitting Shape of Receptor in Nose
- Lightning Caused by Friction between Storm Fronts
- Lightning Composed of Tiny Particles
- Earthquakes Caused by Slipping Fault Lines
- Nile Rises from Snow Melting at its Source
- Animals & Men Evolved by Natural Selection
- Matter is Mostly Empty Space
- Magnetism Caused by Exchange of Particles
- Fire is not an Element
- No Center of the Universe
- Other Planetary Systems
- Speed of Light is Finite
- Theory of Relativity
- Quantum Indeterminism
- Brownian Motion
Epicurus, 300BC, developed a system of philosophy and a way of living that claimed many thousands of committed followers all over the ancient Mediterranean world in cooperative communities that lasted for hundreds of years until being closed down by the Christian Church because they were atheists. Epicureans almost never switched their allegiance to other philosophical systems whereas other schools regularly lost students to the Epicureans. For one, Epicurus did not think it right to put one's possessions into a common fund, as did Pythagoras with all his hundreds of followers - Epicurus thought it a mark of mistrust and if there is mistrust there is no friendship.
Epicurus started studying philosophy (the works of Democritus) when he was 12 and opened his own "academy" when he was 32.
His followers would walk through the streets telling others "Do you want to be happy? Of course you do! Then what's standing in your way? Your happiness is entirely up to you. This has been revealed to us by a man of divine serenity and wisdom who spends his life among us and showed us, by his personal example and by his teaching, the path to redemption from unhappiness - his name is Epicurus".
The fundamental obstacle to happiness, says Epicurus, is anxiety, no matter how rich or famous you won't be happy if you're anxious to be richer or more famous. No matter how good your health is, you wont be happy if you're anxious about getting sick. You can't be happy in this life if you're worried about a next life. You can't be happy as a human being if you're worried about being punished or victimised by powerful divine beings. But you can be happy if you believe in the four basic truths of Epicureanism:
There are no divine beings which threaten us.
There is no next life.
What we actually need is easy to get, what makes us suffer is easy to put up with.
Happiness is having just enough to be moderately comfortable, having a few very good friends to philosophise with, living an analysed life analysing all of your thoughts for truthfulness and meaning and sharing such analysis with your friends and neighbours.
The Scientific Method...
Found in "The Epicurus Reader" - Epicurus, around 300BC, said "Falsehood occurs because of this:- if it is not testified for or is testified against" and "If it is testified for or is not testified against, truth occurs"
Verification is of the form [If P then Q, Q, therefore P]
Falsification of the form [If P then Q, not Q, therefore not P] (Karl Popper)
He then explains why the truth is still not necessarily the truth - and that is the modern scientific method already known to Atheists in 300BC - that scientific truths should be considered defeasible - that which is considered indefeasible is what is known as DOGMA.
They were understanding and considering that which was common knowledge--the embryological stages as taught by the Greek physicians.
Muhammad's listeners of course did not know all the names of the Greek physicians, but they knew the embryological stages of the Greek physicians.
Allah in the Qur'an was using that common knowledge as a sign encouraging the listeners and readers to turn to Him. The trouble is that this common knowledge passed on by Allah was and is not true. Allah was as ignorant about Embryology as the Greeks were. Allah knew nothing more than what the Greeks already knew. And much of what the Greeks thought they knew was in fact false - and these falsities contaminated the Koran throughout.