I recall from electricity 101 that the primary and secondary windings of a transformer are not physically connected, that the magnetic current from the primary winding around the iron core is induced to the seconady windings.

My question is this: If you had an unfused secondary circuit and a sustained (until the secondary of the transformer shot craps) dead short; would damage be possible to the primary side of the xfmr and possibly reach back to trip the breaker in the panel.

That was a worse case scenario. More realistic: If you had a minor brief short in the secondary circuit and still had a good secondary winding (as evident by a few ohms in a 120/24 xmfr); would there be any possible way that could trip the breaker in the panel?