getting to the point of too much info for this section.
I will say reread your diagram and see the bottom of the chart where it lists what they mean by number and color coordination.
some units have different speeds on the motor due to size.
also, motor dependent, the brown wire, FROM THE MOTOR, is usually connected to the capacitor. this does sometimes vary by mfr/tech knowledge.
as for connections at the board, read the schematic to see where the motor wires should land/connect. there are specific places to connect for heat(H) and cool(C) speeds. you only use the jumper if you are using the same speed for both heat and cool, which you unit does NOT call for.
sounds like you have a grasp on the concepts, so take a few minutes, read the schematic/diagram, trace the motor wires, determine the motor installed(if possible) and see if things match up. if not, your issue is the motor. I would say it is the motor since the issue happened after the change, but there could be other things that caused the original motor to fail in the first place.
put the panel back on the evap coil(is the coil dirty or blocked with hair, lint, etc? if so clean it) and proceed from there. it needs to be in place to direct the air in the proper pathway.